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ISSN Dyer, Mark E. Olver University of Saskatchewan, Canada. Given the multiple problems of psychopathy, the syndrome and its correlates have been extensively researched in offender populations including linkages with deviant sexual behavior.

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There has been little research, however, examining sexual cognitive and behavioral correlates of psychopathy in nonclinical samples. A principal component analysis of the J-SFQ generated six orthogonal components, each of which were positively correlated with constellations of self-reported psychopathic traits and sexual compulsivity.

Sexual compulsivity was the strongest and most consistent predictor of sexual fantasy irrespective of content; however, the interpersonal and affective features of self-reported psychopathy uniquely predicted paraphilic fantasies, but only for women.

Ramifications of this research are discussed in terms of the potential identification of at-risk individuals for sexual violence, recommended prevention programs, and increased educational efforts. Key words: psychopathy, sexual compulsivity, sexual deviance, sexual fantasy. Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder with destructive social consequences. Interpersonally, psychopaths are grandiose, dominant, superficial, deceptive, and manipulative.

Affectively, they are short-tempered, unable to form bdsm sex fantasy emotional bonds, lack empathy, guilt, remorse, and deep-seated emotions. And behaviorally, psychopaths exhibit irresponsible and impulsive conduct, have a tendency to ignore or violate social conventions, and engage in frequent and diverse forms of criminal behavior Hare, Given the numerous problems of psychopathy, the syndrome and its correlates have been extensively researched in offender populations including linkages with deviant, coercive, and assaultive sexual behavior.

It has been established that deviant sexual fantasies are fairly common in the general nonoffender population, and thus it would seem that most individuals who engage in deviant fantasy do not express them behaviorally, or at least criminally Williams et al. Although the criminal behavior correlates of psychopathy would suggest that there is a greater likelihood that individuals with psychopathic traits will use coercive means for sexual purposes than people with few such traits, psychopathy is not necessary for these behaviors to occur. The review of the pertinent literature that follows will provide an overview of the intersection of psychopathy, hypersexuality, and indices of sexual deviance.

An important starting point is defining sexual deviance. Deviant sexual interests refer to enduring sexual attractions that are illegal e. Presumably, sexual deviance has cognitive i. The present study focuses on the cognitive and behavioral components of sexual deviance.

The content of sexual fantasies, however, ranges from very common, to very uncommon i. When sexual fantasies involve the pain, suffering, or humiliation of unwilling partners, or sexual acts with minors or persons who cannot consent, the deviant content becomes problematic. There has also been controversy among scholars regarding the need for "sexually coercive paraphilia" to be its own diagnosis in the DSM.

Thornton asserts that for some individuals with a diagnosed paraphilia, it is the act of coercion itself that le to heightened arousal. Thus, a of studies have found that the combination of psychopathy and sexual deviance is predictive of sexual recidivism. The Hawes et al. Hawes et al. The association between psychopathy and sexually deviant or coercive behaviors is well documented in other clinically and theoretically meaningful ways.

When comparing specific deviant sexual fantasies, such as sadism, to psychopathy, there is evidence that these features share several common characteristics, such as emotional detachment from the suffering of others, or the preparedness to inflict pain or injuries Mokros et al. Indeed, psychopathy has been found to be highly correlated with bondage and sadism measures, as well as sexual coercion Williams et al.

For instance, Mokros et al. The deviant sexual focus bdsm sex fantasy is most clearly associated with coercive sexual behavior, Thornton notes, is forcing sex upon a woman in a way that she experiences as abhorrent, humiliating, painful, or terrifying.

What is less evident, though, is to what extent psychopathy is associated with markers of hypersexuality or sexual compulsivity, and if this too bears linkages to sexually deviant interests and behavior. Sexual preoccupation, defined by Mann, Hanson, and Thornton as "an abnormally intense interest in sex that dominates psychological functioning" p.

This difficulty controlling sexual desires is thought to be pervasive and disruptive to daily activities, and can also lead to promiscuity. It is important though not to take hypersexuality and promiscuity to be synonymous, particularly within nonoffender samples. The current study sought to examine the association of self-reported psychopathic traits with sexual fantasies deviant and non-deviant and sexually compulsive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in a nonclinical sample of university students and staff.

Each of the aforementioned domains was assessed via self-report through an online administered survey. Given that self-report measures are vulnerable to manipulation by strategic attempts to alter the test outcome Lukoff, bdsm sex fantasy, a measure of social desirability was also used in the current study. This becomes particularly important when one considers that, by definition, people with elevated psychopathic traits are manipulative, deceptive, and superficially charming Hare, Seto, Khattar, Lalumiere and Quinsey also reported psychopathy to be positively correlated with many forms of deception e.

Others Verschuere et al. Thus, the current study intended to offset the potential for response distortion through impression management by implementing a measure of social desirability. Study hypotheses were as follows:. These participants were recruited through the Department of Psychology's participant pool system, as well as through an online bulletin. Individuals recruited through the undergraduate participant pool were granted one credit for their participation, and individuals recruited through the online bulletin received no compensation. Ratings are based on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 disagree strongly to 5 agree strongly.

There are seven items each alpha for present sample reported in parentheses on the Interpersonal scale e. It was created with the intention of capturing rare, unusual, common, and typical sexual fantasies of men and women through a validated and comprehensive measure. This questionnaire is rated on a 7-point Likert scale, from 1 not at allto 7 very strong.

Questions range from very common sexual fantasies e. Total scores range from 54, indicating low levels of sexual fantasies, toindicating high levels and a diverse array of sexual fantasies. There is limited research examining the psychometric properties for this questionnaire given that it was created with the intent to identify other sexual fantasies that are not present in most sexual fantasy questionnaires.

This was done through open-ended questions that were bdsm sex fantasy and subsequently added to existing sexual fantasy question measures. The items were initially described by individuals who self-identified as having a sex addiction. This questionnaire is rated on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 not at all like me to 4 very much like me.

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With total scores ranging fromhigh total scores represent individuals reporting high sexual compulsivity while low scores represent those low in sexual compulsivity. Sample items include "My sexual appetite has gotten in the way of my relationships" and "It has been difficult for me to find sex partners who desire having sex as much as I want to".

M-C SDS. Impression management can occur by individuals intending to fake good or fake bad by manipulating their responses. The questions of this scale are answered using a binary "true" or "false" format. Sample items include "I never hesitate to go out of my way to help someone in trouble" and "there have bdsm sex fantasy occasions when I took advantage of someone".

Half of the scores are reverse keyed and were reverse coded in analysis. All demographic information and self-report measures were entered into an online format through the University of Saskatchewan's fluid survey tool. Participants first learned of the study either through the participant pool or online university bulletin advertisement, which gave an overview of the study and a brief description of its central measures.

After reading this brief description, participants were directed to read an online version of the consent form. After providing informed consent, participants completed the demographic form and self-report measures. Upon completing the survey, participants were directed to a debriefing window.

The debriefing form provided a fuller description of the nature of the study, including a list of all measures used and explication of central hypotheses. There was also a list of articles that the participants could consult for further information about the topics.

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All data remained anonymous and confidential, and the de-identified data was exported to SPSS for subsequent analysis. The amount of missing data was extremely minimal 0. In most cases in which there were missing data, this was usually limited to one or two items on a given measure. The first step taken in analyzing the data was conducting a principal component analysis of the J-SFQ, in order to reduce the items down to a smaller of interpretable and homogeneous item clusters.

This analysis was conducted on 53 out of 54 items of the J-SFQ, using principal components extraction with varimax rotation to generate six orthogonal components, explaining The final solution was evaluated in light of its interpretability and the homogeneity of the extracted components, with the minimum item loadings generally falling in the. Component 1 was labeled "female partner focused" given that the content seemed to focus on sexual activities with female sexual partners.

Component 2 was labeled "anonymous" given that the item content was organized around sexual activity with unknown or acquaintance-like partners or otherwise impersonal sex. Component 3 was labeled "eroticized dominance" given that the items featured primarily bondage dominance sadomasochism BDSM related sexual activities.

Component 4 bdsm sex fantasy labeled "male partner focused" given that its items were arranged around activities with male partners. Component 5 was termed "paraphilia" as its item content included deviant sexual fantasy content. Finally, component 6 was termed "non-coital sexual activities" as its item content tended to focus on sexual activity with a partner that did not involve penile-vaginal intercourse.

Items loading on each component were then summed for further analysis. It was initially hypothesized that self-reported psychopathic traits SRP-SFparticularly the antisocial and lifestyle features, would be positively associated with a larger of sexual fantasies overall J-SFQ component scores and higher self-reported sexual compulsivity SCS scores. Given the large sample size, most correlations were statistically ificant as well as positive in valence, but they differed in magnitude Table 2.

As such, Cohen's convention was used for interpreting correlation magnitude in which values of. Several themes from these analyses were evident. First, the SRP-SF total score and the four facets had broadly moderate in magnitude correlations with compulsivity scores in the sample overall and across genders. Second, each of the four psychopathy facets correlated at a comparable magnitude with different constellations of self-reported sexual fantasies including content that would be considered atypical or deviant i.

The antisocial facet did not have particularly strong associations with any J-SFQ scores, and in some instances it was actually the most weakly correlated of the four facets. Third, the weakest associations overall were seen with "male partner focused" and "non-coital sexual activity", and it was within these domains that the most prominent gender differences appeared in the magnitude of association. Among males, neither of these domains were ificantly associated with any of the psychopathy facets; however, among females, associations with "male partner focused" were on par with the remaining JSFQ components, and several of the correlations with "non-coital sexual activity" were ificant.

Finally, self-reported psychopathy total and facet scores were ificantly inversely associated with social desirability, irrespective of gender. It was also hypothesized that self-reported sexual fantasies, as measured by the J-SFQ, would be positively associated with sexual compulsivity scores. As anticipated, all J-SFQ subscales had ificant and moderate to large positive correlations with sexual bdsm sex fantasy scores, both in the sample as a whole, and across gender ; the largest observed associations were with general female partner focused and anonymous component scores Table 3.

As anticipated, scores on all six sexual fantasy components had ificant inverse associations with social desirability irrespective of gender. Thus higher levels of social desirability were associated with lower endorsement of all types of sexual fantasy.

A series of gender based comparisons was also analyzed through a one-way analysis of variance ANOVA on each set of scales for a given measure. Regarding the J-SFQ subscales, there were no ificant gender differences between males and females in the "eroticized dominance" category, while females scored higher than males in the "male partner focused fantasy" category. The final set of analyses conducted were a series of hierarchical multiple regressions that featured the prediction of sexual fantasy by psychopathic traits, controlling for sexual compulsivity and social desirability.

Controls were implemented for sexual compulsivity, given that having higher levels of sexual behavioral urges was understandably a strong predictor of all of sexual fantasy i. The analyses were performed among male and female subgroups, given the group differences observed on the measures and the fact that the sample size permitted analyses stratified by gender. The foci of analysis were the two J-SFQ dimensions that arguably were deviant in content; C3 "eroticized dominance" and C5 "paraphilias".

The are bdsm sex fantasy in Tables 5 and 6. As seen in Table 5, sexual compulsivity predicted increased "eroticized dominance" fantasies in both blocks for both genders, while social desirability predicted decreased fantasies only among females. In the second block, among females, the lifestyle features of self-reported psychopathy ificantly incrementally predicted increased fantasies of "eroticized dominance"; however, among males, none of the SRP-SF facets uniquely predicted such fantasies.

Similar trends were observed in the prediction of self-reported "paraphilic" fantasies Table 6. No unique associations were observed between self-reported psychopathic traits and "paraphilic" fantasies among males. The present study examined the relationships of self-reported psychopathy to deviant sexual fantasy and sexual compulsivity in a university staff and student sample.

A six-component solution of the sexual fantasy questionnaire provided evidence for two distinct that could bdsm sex fantasy considered deviant: paraphilia and eroticized dominance. Definitions regarding what sexual fantasies are considered "deviant" and those considered "non-deviant," however, are problematic for a of reasons. First, the label of deviance requires that there be a "normophilic" category of fantasy, and what may be considered normal sexual fantasies are heavily dependent on historical, political, and sociological factors Joyal, Determining what an atypical sexual fantasy is can be a highly subjective matter, and as such, the inclusion of paraphilia and eroticized dominance as of deviant sexual fantasies in the current study is related to their less frequent prevalence in general nonclinical samples, at least relative to non-deviant fantasies.

The J-SFQ was created with the intention of determining what could be understood as a deviant sexual fantasy. Relative to the prevalence rates found in that analysis, the principal component analysis revealed that eight fantasies included specifically in the paraphilic category were the eight most uncommon fantasies in Joyal's analysis.

Thus, deviant sexual interests in this study are understood as being the most statistically infrequent fantasies, confirmed by similar findings in two separate datasets.

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